1) Fig. 1 shows two types of milk container commonly used by supermarkets.
(a) (i) Give two reasons why high density polyethylene is a suitable material for the milk containers. 
(ii) Give two reasons why blow moulding is a suitable manufacturing process for making the milk containers. 
(b) Describe, using annotated sketches, the principles of forming one of the containers (do not include the closures or caps) using blow moulding. Show details of the mould that would be used. 
(c) Vast quantities of these containers are produced each day and are generally disposed of in waste bins when empty.
Discuss the implications of using plastic containers as opposed to the more traditional 'glass' bottle. 
2) Fig. 2 shows a 'batch produced' flat pack shelving unit.
(a) The unit is made from beech veneered MDF (Medium Density Fibreboard).
(i) Give two reasons why veneered MDF is used in this manufacturing situation in preference to solid timber. 
(ii) Give two safety hazards associated with working MDF. 
(i) Describe, using annotated sketches, the process of veneering the surface of the MDF boards. 
(ii) Describe, using annotated sketches, a possible batch production method of machining the T - slots in the shelves. 
(c) Discuss the benefits of
the manufacturer and/or the customer of designing and making the shelving
as a flat pack self assembly unit. 
3) Fig. 3 shows an adjustable desk lamp made from mild steel.
(a) (i) Give two reasons why mild steel could be a suitable material for the lamp. 
(ii) Give two reasons why a sprayed finish is needed on the lamp. 
(b) The base is made from a mild steel disc, diameter 155 mm which has been machined on a centre lathe.
Describe, using annotated sketches the main stages of turning the base on a centre lathe. 
(c) Discuss the merits of either
a permanent or a temporary method of joining the lower stem to the base.
4) Fig. 4 shows two types of A3 carrying case. One is made from corruflute (extruded polypropylene), the other from heavy duty cardboard.
(i) Give two reasons why heavy duty cardboard is a suitable material for the carrying case. 
(ii) Give two different reasons why corruflute is a suitable material for the carrying case. 
(b) Describe, using annotated sketches, the stages of producing a prototype A3 corruflute carrying case. Ignore the handle and fastening clips. 
Your answer should include details of:
· Identification of the net;
(c) Discuss the manufacturing implications posed by attaching the handle or the fastening clips to the corruflute case. 
5) Fig. 5 shows a simple storage box with lid and rope handle. It is to be distributed and sold as a flat pack ready for home assembly.
(a) Heavy duty corrugated cardboard is used to make the box.
(i) Use a sketch to show the cross-sectional structure of heaving duty corrugated cardboard. 
(ii) The corners of the box and lid
are held with two-part plastic fastenings.
(b) The box is designed for high volume production runs.
Describe, using annotated sketches, the stages of cutting out and producing the fold lines. Show details of any press knives/cutting dies that may be used. 
(c) The manufacturer requires a monochrome label to show the product name and assembly instructions. 
Discuss the merits of using either lithography or screen printing to produce the labels.
6) Fig.1 shows a set of laminated salad tools.
(ii) Give two properties of hardwoods that make them suitable for use as serving tools. 
(b) Describe using annotated sketches the process of making the laminated salad serving tools. 
(c) Discuss the factors that a manufacturer must consider before deciding upon the most appropriate method for producing curved shapes in wood. 
7) Fig.2 shows the main components of a skateboard truck.
(ii) Give two properties that the alloy used for the skateboard truck should have. 
When developing a prototype for the skateboard truck, the designer used a centre lathe to produce component B (the bush).
(b) Describe in detail the process of producing component B using a centre lathe. The stock material is 10mm diameter. Use sketches where appropriate. 
(c) Discuss the factors that a manufacturer must consider before deciding upon the most appropriate surface finish for metal components. 
8) Fig.3 shows a hair dryer that incorporates both thermosetting and thermoplastics.
(ii) Give the specific name of one thermosetting plastic used for the nozzle of the hair dryer. 
(iii) Give two reasons why thermosetting plastics are used in electrical products. 
(b) Describe in detail the process of compression moulding. Use sketches where appropriate.
9) Fig.4 shows a cardboard carton used for a multi-pack of cans.
(b) Describe using a detailed flowchart the stages in the commercial production of
10) Fig.5 shows an estate agent’s sign made from corruflute. The sign is printed using a commercial screen printing process.
(ii) Draw a cross section through a sheet of corruflute. 
(b) Describe using a detailed flowchart the stages in the production of this sign using commercial screen printing.
The starting point of the flow chart should be completed artwork and the end point the final sign. 
(c) Discuss the factors that may have led to the manufacturer selecting screen printing to produce this sign. 
11) Fig.1 shows a table made from hardwood.
(ii) Give two reasons why hardwoods are suitable for a table. 
(b) Describe, using sketches and notes, the main techniques used by manufacturers to overcome the problems of shrinkage and expansion of solid wood in the construction of furniture. 
(c) Discuss the factors that contribute to price differences between hardwood and softwood furniture. 
12) Fig.2 shows a self-assembly running machine.
The main frame of the running machine is made from box section mild steel.
(ii) Give two suitable finishes for the mild steel frame of the running machine. 
(b) Fig. 2.1 shows a bracket used to secure the running machine in the upright position. The bracket is joined to the frame of the machine by bolts screwed into the threaded holes in the bracket.
(c) Discuss the implications of consumer health and safety legislation on the design of self-assembly fitness equipment. 
13) Fig. 3 shows a car dashboard produced by vacuum forming.
(ii) Give two reasons why vacuum forming is an appropriate process for the production of the car dashboard. 
(b) Describe, in detail, the process of vacuum forming the car dashboard including the most important features of the mould. Use sketches where appropriate. 
(c) Discuss the implications to car manufacturers of the growing need to make cars more environmentally friendly. 
14) Fig. 4 shows a point of sale display made from 950 micron duplex board.
(ii) Explain what is meant by the term 950 micron. 
(b) The point of sale displays are cut out from flat board using a die cutter.
(c) As technology develops, new automated processes such as laser cutting are being used for the production of graphic products.
(b) Describe, in detail, the main quality control checks that are carried out during colour print production. Use notes and sketches where appropriate. 
(c) Discuss the importance of quality assurance to the manufacturer and/or consumer in commercial print production.