1) Fig. 1 shows a design for a mass-produced A4 paper file holder, manufactured from 3 ply birch faced plywood.


(i) Give three reasons, other than cost, why birch faced plywood is a suitable material for the file holder. [3]

(ii) Describe, using annotated sketches, how plywood is constructed. [3]

(iii) Give two surface treatments for birch faced plywood which will retain its natural wood effect. [2]


(i) The holder is to be assembled without the use of any other components, such as screws or nails.

Name and describe, using annotated sketches, a suitable joint. [4]

(ii) Explain why Knock Down fittings would not be appropriate for use on the file holder. [4]

(c) Discuss the implications of manufacturing the holder in plywood rather than plastic. [8]

2) Fig. 2(a) shows a design for a paper hole punch made form mild steel.
Fig. 2(b) shows an enlarged view of one of the punches.


(i) Give two suitable finishes for the paper hole punch. [2]

(ii) Name the type of machine that would be used to machine the chamfer for large quantities of the mild steel punches. [2]

(iii) The punch shown in Fig. 2(b) is made from mild steel.
The mild steel is found to be too soft and blunts during use.
Name and describe one process that could be applied to the mild steel to make its
properties more suitable. [4]


(i) Describe, using annotated sketches, how the mild steel base would be manufactured by press forming. [6]

(ii) The company offers a two year warranty (guarantee) on the hole punch.
Give two advantages of offering such a long warranty period. [2]

(c) Discuss, in relation to economics the implications of not carrying out Quality Control checks during manufacture. [8]

3) Fig. 3 shows a design for a clear plastic measuring jug, aimed at the domestic market. It is to be produced by injection moulding.


(i) Give the specific name of two thermoplastics that would be suitable for the measuring jug. [2]

(ii) Select one of the specific materials and give two properties that make it suitable for this application. [2]

(iii) Give two reasons why plasticisers are added to plastics prior to moulding. [2]

(iv) Explain how the 3 mm thickness of the jug is achieved in injection moulding. [2]


(i) Describe, using annotated sketches, two manufacturing methods of including liquid level markings on the side of the jug. [6]

(ii) Give two surface features which would indicate that the jug has been produced by injection moulding. [2]

(c) Discuss the factors that have led to a greater acceptance of mass produced plastic products since their introduction in the 1950's. [8]

4) Fig. 4 shows a design for a soft drinks carton.

(a) The material for the soft drinks carton is to be made from bonding together thin layers of paperboard, polyethylene and aluminium.

(i) Give the name of this method of combing materials. [1]

(ii) State the purpose of each of the three layers. [3]

(iii) State the name of a suitable high quality colour printing process for the cartons, and give one reason for your choice. [2]

(iv) Explain why it is important that the raw material for the paperboard comes from 'well managed forests'. [2]

(b) The soft drinks product is to be fully protected from damage by using two forms of packaging. The first is the carton containing the drink and the second is an outer box into which the cartons are packed and transported to the shops.

Explain the difference between the specifications for the drink carton and the outer box. [8]

(c) Discuss the production implications to be considered before a company would decide to launch a new soft drink product. [8]

6) The window frames in many houses are made from timber or plastic.

(a) (i) Give two reasons why hardwood is a suitable material for window frames. [2]

(ii) Give two reasons why softwood might be chosen in preference to hardwood for window frames. [2]

(iii) State why it is particularly important that the end grain on timber window frames is treated with a weather resistant finish. [2]


(i) Describe, using annotated diagrams, a system that could be used for cutting and assembling 1000 identical hardwood window frames as shown in Fig. 1(a). The frames are made from timber of a performed section as shown in Fig.1(b). [6]

(ii) Identify four key aspects of dimensional accuracy that would need to be considered in manufacturing a batch of window frames. [4]

(c) Discuss the full implications for the window manufacturer of investing in automated cutting, profiling and assembly equipment. [8]

7) Fig. 2 shows a design for a chair.

The chair is manufactured from a mild steel tube frame with canvas seating.


(i) Give two advantages of using tubular steel section, rather than solid steel bar, for the manufacture of the chair frame. [2]

(ii) Give two possible surface treatments for the tubular steel to prevent corrosion. [2]

(iii) Describe, using annotated sketches, how two side frames would be produced by a small company in preparation for manufacturing 1000 chairs. [4]


(i) Describe, using annotated sketches, how tubing is produced by extrusion. [4]

(ii) Identify four pieces of anthropometric data that would be used in designing the chair. [4]

(c) By making reference to style, materials and construction techniques, discuss how they influence designers of chairs. [8]

8) Fig. 3(a) shows a design for a plastic container used for fabric conditioner.


(i) Give two reasons why polythene is widely used for containing liquid. [2]

(ii) State why polythene is not normally used for fizzy liquid containers. [2]


(i) Describe, using annotated sketches, how the integral handle on the milk container is produced. [4]

(ii) Draw, using annotated sketches, two surface features which show that a bottle has been blow moulded. [4]

(iii) Describe, using annotated sketches, how the screw thread on the neck of the container is produced. [4]

(c) The coding system for plastic identification is shown in Fig. 3(b).

(i) Explain why such an identification system has been developed. [2]

(ii) Discuss the environmental issues arising from the use of plastics in packaging. [6]

9) Fig. 4 shows a design for a carton for fresh fruit juice.


(i) Give two reasons why these types of cartons are rectangular in shape. [2]

(ii) Give two reasons why laminated paperboard is considered a suitable material for the carton. [4]


(i) Explain why manufacturers go to the expense of including a polythene opening tab with a foil seal, rather than the cheaper method of using a tearable corner. [4]

(ii) Produce an annotated flow chart which outlines the key stages in the production of large quantities of the completed carton in its flat packed form. [6]

(c) Discuss the relative merits of different packaging materials used for fruit juice containers. [8]

10) Fig. 5 shows a design for a 3D pop-up greetings card.


(i) Give three properties of a suitable material from which to manufacture the greetings card. [3]

(ii) Give three reasons why the manufacturer may prefer to make the greetings card from a single piece of card. [3]

(b) Describe, using annotated sketches, how the design of the greetings card could be changed so that it can be cut from a single piece of card. [10]

All cut and fold lines to be clearly labelled.

No glue flaps to be used.

(c) High volume manufacturers of greetings cards have cut back on producing 3D pop-up cards in recent years.

Discuss the reasons which have led to this decision. [8]

11) Fig. 1(a) shows a design for a mass-produced flat packed shelf unit, manufactured from veneered chipboard.


(i) Give three reasons, other than cost, why veneered chipboard would be suitable material for the shelf unit. [3]

(ii) Fig. 1(b) shows a cross section of veneered chipboard. Give two reasons why it is made in this way. [2]

(iii) Identify three potential problem areas which arise from working with veneered chipboard. [3]

(b) Using notes and sketches, design a test rig that would determine the relationship between shelf thickness and deflection subjected to a uniform load across the span of the shelf. [8]

(c) Discuss the issues that have led to the extensive use of Knock Down Fittings by furniture manufacturers in preference to traditional joining techniques. [8]

12) Fig. 2 shows a design for a mountain bike.


(i) Give two reasons why an aluminium alloy is a suitable material for the bike frame. [2]

(ii) Give two reasons why frames made from titanium are only used for competition bikes. [2]

(iii) Use sketches and notes to identify the main loads which affect a bike frame when in use. [4]


(i) Anthropometric data is an important design resource.

Explain what is meant by anthropometric data, how it is obtained and how it is presented to designers. [4]

(ii) Describe using annotated sketches, how a manufacturer ensures that batches of the bike frame are assembled and joined quickly and accurately. [4]

(c) Discuss the role of modelling in the design of efficient bike frames. [8]

13) Fig. 3 shows a design for a plastic soup ladle aimed at the domestic market.


(i) Give three reasons why nylon (polyamide) is considered to be a suitable material for the product. [3]

(ii) Give one reason why polystyrene would be considered to be an unsuitable material for this product. [1]

(iii) Give two reasons why pigments are added to nylon prior to moulding. [2]


(i) Explain why the manufacturers might consider injection moulding the handle and bowl separately rather than in one piece. [2]

(ii) Describe one method of joining the handle to the bowl. [2]

(iii) Describe, using annotated sketches, the function of the sprue bush and ejector pins in an injection moulding tool. [6]

(c) Discuss the issues that manufacturers would need to consider before deciding to mass produce the soup ladle. [8]

14) Fragile or expensive products, such as the personal CD player shown in Fig. 4 need protective packaging for distribution prior to their sale.


(i) Give two reasons why many companies have stopped using expanded polystyrene in their packaging. [2]

(ii) Give four other methods of providing protection for the CD player. [4]

(b) The CD player and accessories are to be packed in an outer card box.

Sketch to suitable proportions, a development (net) of the card box which meets the following specification:

· External dimensions of the box are 190 mm x 140 mm x 70 mm;
· Hinged lid;
· Clear window to show the CD player;
· One piece development (net).

Show clearly all fold lines and glue tabs. [10]

(c) Discuss the environmental impact of product packaging and how companies are addressing these issues. [8]

15) Due to problems of theft, mobile phone shops are unable to display actual phones on their shop displays. They often use replica phones or large display boards.

Fig. 5 shows a typical design of phone.


(i) Give three reasons why replica phones might be preferred to large display boards. [3]

(ii) Give three reasons why foamboard is used in the manufacture of large display boards. [3]

(b) A Point of Sale Display Board, in the profile of a large mobile phone is to be produced from 6 mm corrifulte sheet in batches of 10,000 using a high quality four colour printing process.

(i) Name and describe a suitable printing process. [3]

(ii) Name and describe a commercial process for cutting the profile of the display board. [3]

(iii) Describe two quality control procedures that would be necessary in the manufacture of these display boards. [4]

(c) The mobile phone market is one in which the advancement of technology results in the constant replacement of phones.

Discuss how computers can be used to readily update the marketing strategies of these new products. [8]

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